Tuesday, 24 September 2013

Microcontroller a Small Chip with High Performance

Microcontroller is one of the widely used electronic devices in the field of computers and communications. It is an automatically controlled products used in automobile engine control systems, implantable medical devices, remote controls, office machines and many other electronic embedded systems. A typical Microcontroller includes a processor, memory (RAM/ROM) and peripherals (timers, I/O ports).

Microcontroller is designed to conduct a one task at a time to control single system. It is very small and simplified and can include all the functions on a single chip. It is can also referred as tiny dedicated computer. Microcontroller contains several general purpose input/output pins (GPIO). These pins are software configurable to either an input or an output state to read sensors and signals. These configured pins drive external devices such as motor and LEDs on the mechanical command.

Microcontroller design uses complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. It uses less power and more immune to power spikes. The size of the micro-controller chip has dramatically shrunk. Earlier the large circuit boards were used to build, but now all the components are loaded onto a single chip. Due to their simple size they conduct one operation at a time.

The most of the Microcontroller use today are embedded and use with other machines like telephones, appliances and computer systems. LEDs or small LCD displays are typically used output or input devices in the operations. Sometime the sensors of temperature, humidity and light level are being used as input devices.

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